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TYPICAL FEATURES ACCORDING TO PERIODS
The following indications are only a small part of dating characterizations and are not to be considered as a complete nor absolute rules, the problem of dating being much more complex: many variants come into play.
Abbreviations: Th = Thotmose; Am = Amenhotep; Rm = Ramses
Dating: more pointers.The cryptographic writings of the name of Amun are also documented only starting from NK. The scenes with the king depicted in presence of gods (Amun, Maat, Mont, Ptah) (8) or triumphant defeating the enemy are Ramessid.
The absence of the contour line on the base or shifted inwards is characteristic of TIP, just like the xpr sign engraved with the legs detached from the body.
Isis suckling is a subject almost exclusive of LP.
Also materials can give only general rules, being been utilized during different epochs; a certain degree of uncertainty always remains. In reality, absolute certainty of dating is rare: though students agree that the V-shaped notches engraved upon the elytra (to indicate the Humeral Callosities) are not documented prior to the XVIIIth Dynasty. The Blue Crown is represented only starting from NK (9). The God Seth never appears on scarabs before the Ramesside period (10).
Dating remains therefore a problem and one must formulate a dating hypothesis with a great circumspection. All elements of observation are to be kept in mind: shape, motif, material, dimensions. Each of them interacts with the others and they can lead to acceptance or exclusion of formulated dating hypotheses. It also must be kept in mind that, if all goes well, the best approximation will be the period of reign.
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