An extremely interesting scarab made at a time of disunity in Egypt.
This finely made scarab reads
Praise (to or for?) the king, powerful one, of Lower Egypt.
It is a Third Intermediate Period scarab, undercut , as many in this period were,
and as it refers to only the king of Lower Egypt, must surely have been made at a time when there were kings in both upper and lower Egypt.
Third Intermediate Period
The Third Intermediate Period is from the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI of the 20th dynasty in 1070 BC to the foundation of the 26th dynasty by Psamtik I in 664 BC, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the 25th dynasty. During the course of the Third Intermediate Period, the capitol of Egypt moved from Tanis to Nubia, to Thebes, to Sais and back to Nubia and Thebes. This is a confusing period in ancient Egyptian history as to who was ruling in Egypt, and where. The succession of competing dynasties ruled mostly concurrently. During most of the dynasty, power was shared with t he Theban priests of Amun.
The 21st Dynasty ruled Lower Egypt in Tanis.. Kings also ruled in the 21st Dynasty from Thebes -- this is the dynasty of High Priests. Some of them took the full royal titles.
Like the 21st Dynasty, the 22nd Dynasty was split between Upper and lower Egypt. Upper Egypt was ruled by Horsiese, a high priest of Amun at Karnak. He was appointed by his cousin, Osorkon II, and while Osorkon ruled in the north, Horsiese took control of the south of Egypt. The rest of the 22nd Dynasty was as series of Libyan kings ruling in Tanis and Bubastis They were recognized over all of Egypt until the rival dynasty in Thebes and Leontopolis rose around 828 BC. Rulers of the 23rd dynasty held Thebes early on, but later ruled from Herakleopolis, Tanis, Hermopolis, and Leontopolis. Splitting of the central rule of Egypt into competing centres of power weakened the government considerably, and probably led to the Kushite attack which took control with the 25th dynasty and after they were de[posed we have the beginning of the Late Kingdom.
I found a tiny piece of what I first hoped would be payprus inside the cavity.
It's a little roled up piece of paper on whuich is written in blue ink "904".
Presumably put there by a previous owner.