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The following indications are only a small part of dating characterizations and are not to be considered as a complete nor absolute rules, the problem of dating being much more complex: many variants come into play.

 Abbreviations: Th = Thotmose; Am = Amenhotep; Rm = Ramses


Showng difference between "silouetted" and "gouged"

Rope border and crocodile.

"Column dd between two equal signs" and "Two vertical bends touching the borders..

Anonymous king on the throne and falcon headed deities

Symmetric style (Tufnell) or exotic (Vodoz)

Joined names of Th III + Sethi I and Arranged at the top surmounted by a winged sun or sun with uraei

Pillar dd depicted with three transverse bars and Pillar dd central between two uaei, usually not crowned

Writing of Menkheperre with complementary n

Prothorax separated from the elytra by a Y trace

Tightening on the back between prothorax and elytra





Dating: more pointers.The cryptographic writings of the name of Amun are also documented only starting from NK. The scenes with the king depicted in presence of gods (Amun, Maat, Mont, Ptah) (8) or triumphant defeating the enemy are Ramessid.


The absence of the contour line on the base or shifted inwards is characteristic of TIP, just like the xpr sign engraved with the legs detached from the body.


Isis suckling is a subject almost exclusive of LP.


Also materials can give only general rules, being been utilized during different epochs; a certain degree of uncertainty always remains. In reality, absolute certainty of dating is rare: though students agree that the V-shaped notches  engraved upon the elytra (to indicate the  Humeral Callosities) are not documented prior to the XVIIIth  Dynasty. The Blue Crown is represented only starting from NK (9). The God Seth never appears on scarabs before the Ramesside period (10).


Dating remains therefore a problem and one must formulate a dating hypothesis with a great circumspection. All elements of observation are to be kept in mind: shape, motif, material, dimensions. Each of them interacts with the others and they can lead to acceptance or exclusion of formulated dating  hypotheses. It also must be kept in mind that, if all goes well, the best approximation will be the period of reign.



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